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Discuss the meaning of tino rangatiratanga in Te Tiriti
Waitangi and identify two contemporary challenges to the expression of tino rangatiratanga in the present day.
The meaning of tino rangatiratanga?:
The use in the treaty- English and Maori
Legal standing: Court case view of it x 2 Wi Parata and New Zealand Maori Council v
Attorney General in 1987. Courts today-??
The tribunal view and Maori view in contrast to court view. My view= still relevant although Maori do not have right to sovereignty today. Courts believe that this sovereignty and kawanatanga is the legal justification for the exercise of power of
Parliament. The judicial jurisprudence states that the sovereignty of the British
Crown in New Zealand is umpeachable. Still must be expressedPrinciple of partnership means that the Pakeha must also consider Maori tino rangatiratanga and there must be a shared power and authority with comanagement.
1. Parliamentary structure Maori guaranteed right of autonomy and authority over own affairs
- Representation in government is low but improving under MMP
- Local governing bodies - 5% only
- Good- Maori electorates- naïve to think that Maori now have full representation
- Lack of legislation devoted to this- needs to change~ quote
- View that Maori should not be treated as separate group- challenge
1. More radical extreme views : Membership opportunities on organisations take over Minister of Social development?Some believe that Maori should have their own courts and land to govern like reservations. However, holding to tribunal and court belief rather Maori should work as a treaty partner with the Crown
Struggle for Maori to have a say over Maori affairs in particular to the environment and tikanga values. They feel they are being ignored by the government. Redesign parliament structure?
The Environment Court struggle. Statutory acknowledgement given low regard in environment court
- Co-management issues. Maori need to have more management. Maori have to struggle to implement tino rangatiratanga, resistance due to a lingering colonialimpact- not enough legislation. Co-management regime over natural environments such as the whanganui river and te ureweraThis partnership between the Crown and Maori today is a balance especially in conservation. This is shown by the Ngati Pahauwera's claim to have recognised their tino rangatiratanga over their part of the Mohaka river. The
Maori argued that Article 2 guaranteed them this right due to how the river is taonga. Had to argue for it- met active resistance rather than active protectionTreaty principle of active protection- is not binding- does not guarantee
Maori the right to look after land, weakened the promises of treaty in a legal sense-
Other cases- difficulty because Maori do not own land but they still want to protect it- fine balance- don't own land not much legal influence in NZ
Found by Harvard university the more governship means better rights for Maori,
less governship and Maori are disadvantaged- deal with maori issues like prison rates and preserve the environment for generations to come, links to Article 3 and the protection of Maori taonga. (spinoff article)
Change has not come far enough, contrasting perspectives of whether Maori should be given special representation.
2. Right of self-determination economic ability to provide for people
- Restore economic independence to restore tino rangatiratanga
- Without tino rangatiratanga it is difficult for Maori to improve their finances,
they need self-determination and the right to look out for their own affairs.
- This is termed a reoccurring cycle
- In the past Maori have been exploited by the Crown with land seizures which has disadvantaged Maori and left them impoverished for years. A minority group.-
Treaty principle- redress
Period of redress- Waitangi Settlements- Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement
Only a fraction of what Maori really lost
Challenge: Settlements don't restore authority to hapu
Must restore resources, give financial interdependence - challenge: land already sold
If you want to make aspirations real, you have to find a way to pay for it.
Economic interdependence, aspire and make things real, restore the honour of crown and restore some degree of the ability to restore tino rangitiratanga.
Thus, Maori are still suffering in the long-term from these impacts to become financially independent again.
6% of New Zealand land remains as Maori land (spin off)- so Maori have to regain their independence in other ways. Not as simple as restoring land so Maori can control their area. This tino rangatiratanga must come from politics, being involved in management of land and being allowed to prosper financially again through other means like investments.
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